Meaning and Functions of Management

By | October 27, 2021

Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. It ensures the effective and efficient utilization of organization’s human, financial, material and other resources. It is the art of getting things done through others. Today, let’s have complete understanding of basic and secondary functions of management.

Management is mainly concerned with the task, resources and goals. It can be seen as a set of activities that are performed to achieve desired results. The success of any organization highly depends on the skill, efficiency and effectiveness of management.

Functions of Management

A) Basic Functions of Management

1. Planning

2. Organizing

3. Staffing

4. Leading

5. Controlling

B) Subsidiary Functions of Management

1. Decision Making

2. Supervision

3. Motivation

4. Communication

5. Coordination

6. Conflict Management

7. Time Management

Basic or Primary Functions of Management

1. Planning

Planning is considered as the first step of management function. It is thinking about what to do, what not to do, how to do, where to do, when to do, who will do etc. It is deciding how best to achieve organization’s goals and profit by applying best strategies.

The success of any business highly depends on how effective the management plan is. In short, planning is the process of setting objectives, finding best alternative, taking action to implement the plan and strategies to achieve that organizational objectives with effective and efficient utilization of organization’s resources.

2. Organizing

Organizing is another key function of management after planning. It is identifying all the activities performed in an organization and allocating resources to each activities for efficient and effective achievement of the desired goals.

It helps for the better implementation of plan by clarifying the jobs and working relationship within the organization. Organizing is simply the process which includes identification and division of work, grouping the job & departmentalization, assignment of duties and establishing reporting relationship in the organization.

3. Staffing

Employees are the real drivers of any business. All employees are different according to their working capacity. So, based on the skill, ability and experience, right employee should be selected for the right job. This is done by management.

So, staffing is the management function of recruiting the right person fort the right job. It also consider about training, development, promotion and compensation of the personnel in the organization. No business can be successful if workers are not capable and knowledgeable.

4. Leading

Leading is another very important function of management. A manager must have a great leadership skill in order to influence their employees. Leading is simply motivating and influencing subordinates in the organization to work in the desired way so that organizational goals can be achieved. It is people oriented. It influences the behavior and attitude of employees to maximize their efforts and energy in work in order to get maximum results.

5. Controlling

Controlling is also considered one of the important function of management. It ensures that the activities are performed according to plan or not. Controlling is the process of setting standards of performance, measuring actual performance of subordinates, comparing actual performance with standard performance, finding errors and then taking corrective actions to rectify those errors. Controlling verify whether everything is done according to organization’s plan and objectives or not.

Subsidiary Functions of Management

1. Decision Making : In management, decision making is a process which includes identification and analysis of problem, developing and evaluating alternatives, selecting and implementing the best alternative to solve the problem and at last reviewing the implementation.

2. Supervision : In simple word, supervision means overseeing the subordinates at work to see whether they are working as plan or not. It is also directing, guiding and controlling the work of subordinates to get the desired result.

3. Motivation : Motivation means influencing the subordinates to get the desired result by satisfying their needs and wants.

4. Communication : The process of sharing information, ideas and opinions from one person to another within or outside of the organization is known as communication.

5. Coordination : Coordination in the organization is ensuring that subordinates, different departments, units and groups are working with mutual cooperation, help, understanding and sync or not.

6. Conflict Management : Conflict management is the management function of identifying and solving different types conflicts that arises during work.

7. Time Management : Time management is managing the working time in the organization. It is dividing and controlling the time for each activities performed within the organization.

What are the 4 Types of Management

Management is also classified into different types. On the basis of nature of business and organizational structure, different organizations use different levels or types of management. In general, management can only be classified into two types:

  • Top-down management: The top management sets the goals and objectives for the organization and then delegates tasks to lower-level managers.
  • Bottom-up management: In this type of management, employees are given the power to make decisions about how the company should be run.

But, in real there are 4 types of management you can see normally in a big companies or organizations.

1. Top Level Managers

Top-level managers are the people who have the most authority in a company. They are responsible for making decisions on behalf of their organization and they often have a team of people who work under them to help them get the job done.

Top-level managers don’t always need to be in the office, but they do need to make sure that they are available when needed by their employees or clients. They also need to be aware of what is going on in their company and what needs to be done next.

2. Middle Level Managers

Middle level managers are the people in the organization who are responsible for leading change, supporting employees and managing projects. They typically have a higher level of education and experience than lower-level managers, but they lack the seniority to be considered upper-level managers.

The middle level manager is an important position in any organization. They are the bridge between top management and lower-level management, as well as between employees and their supervisors.

3. First Line Managers

First Line Managers are the first person in charge of managing a group of employees. They oversee their employees and make sure that they are meeting their goals and doing a good job. They also help with hiring new workers, training them, and making sure that they take care of any problems that arise with their workers.

4. Team Leaders

Team leaders are the person who is in charge of the team. They are responsible for making sure that everything goes smoothly and that everyone on the team is doing their job.

A team leader understands that they have to delegate tasks to different people on their team. They have to make sure that everyone is working hard and getting the job done.

To sum up, is an important process in any organization. Management has a lot of responsibilities. It is the responsibility of management to make sure that the employees are working efficiently and effectively. Management also has to make sure that the company is profitable and meeting all its goals.

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